Study Síndrome Cerebelar flashcards online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android Ataxia de MS e MI ipsilaterais à lesão, hipotonia ipsilateral e lateropulsão. Signs of Cerebellar Disease: "DANISHPTR". 2 . Ataxia de MS e MI ipsilaterais à lesão, hipotonia ipsilateral e lateropulsão: Síndrome do Hemisfério Cerebelar. Estimulação magnética transcraniana. Avaliação de excitabilidade cortical em animais e modelos experimentais de lesão cerebelar.
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Lesao cerebellar is a degenerative disorder that initially develops with hypertrophy Injury to any of such components may result in axonal interruption to the inferior olivary nucleus, leading to its degeneration In cases where the alterations are restricted to the central tegmentar tract, lesao cerebellar HOD is ipsilateral, like in the present case.
In cases where there is involvement of the dentate nucleus or of the dentate nucleus or superior cerebellar peduncle, the HOD is contralateral. Bilateral compromise may be observed in cases where the lesion simultaneously affects the superior cerebellar peduncle and the contralateral central tegmentar tract, or in lesao cerebellar of compromise of both central tegmentar tracts 11, HOD is characterized as a lesion with hypersignal on T2-weighted images, lesao cerebellar the anterolateral portion of the bulb, in the olivary region, associated with increase in the volume of such a structure that does not present contrast enhancement.
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Such studies have also shed light on the more specific anatomical bases of different EF. For instance, executive subcomponents which are more heavily based on rational thinking, such as logical reasoning and lesao cerebellar, are generally associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas functions which depend on emotional and lesao cerebellar processing, such lesao cerebellar social behavior regulation and decision making DMare more closely associated with ventromedial prefrontal cortex VMPFC functioning Ardila, ; Chan et al.
However, scientists have begun to question the exclusive role of the frontal lobes in EF in light of evidence that points toward the involvement of other brain lesao cerebellar in this set of cognitive abilities. Executive impairments in patients with lesions in areas other than the lesao cerebellar cortex Cummings, ; Kramer et al.
These associations include reciprocal projections between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum Heyder et al.
Some authors suggest that EF is a product of the activation of frontal-subcortical circuits Cummings, ; Tekin and Cummings,such as the frontal-cerebellar connection Middleton and Strick, ; Heyder et al.
The cerebellum has long lesao cerebellar considered essential to posture lesao cerebellar well as motor control and coordination.
However, studies published since the s have expanded this perspective by showing that this structure is also involved in functions that are not exclusively related to motor control Leiner lesao cerebellar al.
Evidence obtained from clinical Schmahmann and Sherman, ; Hayter et al.
Cerebellar structures contain a series of efferent and afferent connections to a number of other brain regions, such as the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, portions of the posterior parietal cortex, the superior temporal region, the thalamus, and the limbic system Schmahmann and Pandya, lesao cerebellar Middleton and Strick, ; Riva and Giorgi, ; Bugalho et al.
However, the functional implications of this pattern of connectivity have still to be investigated. This syndrome includes alterations in EF planning, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency and working memory, visuospatial disorganization, difficulties in language production, and personality changes.
The authors hypothesize that these impairments occur due to interruptions in the neural circuitries linking the cerebellum to prefrontal, temporal, and posterior parietal cortices, as well as to the limbic system.
This syndrome has been observed lesao cerebellar both children and adults with acquired lesions of different etiologies, such as strokes Neau et al. Studies of EF have identified performance deficits in patients with cerebellar damage in the same assessment instruments used to detect executive dysfunction in patients with prefrontal lesions Manes et lesao cerebellar.
Patients with cerebellar damage have been found to perform worse than control groups in tasks such as lesao cerebellar Stroop Test Gottwald et al. Although the evidence allows for the possibility that patients with cerebellar damage could have similar cognitive profiles to individuals with frontal lobe damage Abel lesao cerebellar al.
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In one of the few studies that made such a comparison, Casini and Ivry investigated the performance of individuals with frontal and cerebellar damage in a perceptual task.
Exclusion lesao cerebellar consisted of: Symptoms of depression were screened through the Geriatric Depression Scale GDS; Yesavage and Sheikh, —adapted to the Brazilian population by Almeida and Almeida, ; however, scores on lesao cerebellar scale were used to describe the sample and not as exclusion criteria.
Participants who took part lesao cerebellar speech therapy or neuropsychological rehabilitation programs were also excluded from the sample.
The following exclusion criteria were additionally applied to the control group: Table 1 displays the descriptive sociodemographic and clinical data pertaining to the patients in the clinical samples.
Socioeconomic status was assessed based on Brazilian criteria for economic classification lesao cerebellar Statistical analyses did not identify significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between groups. Procedure and Instruments All participants provided written and informed consent.
Participants were assessed during a single session lasting roughly an lesao cerebellar and a half, during which all data pertaining to sociodemographic characteristics, exclusion criteria, and cognitive assessment were collected.
The instruments used are described below: