Front Cover. Jerome A. Shaffer. Prentice-Hall, - Body, Mind & Spirit - pages Bibliographic information. QR code for Philosophy of mind. Philosophy of Mind. Front Cover. Jerome A. Shaffer. Prentice Hall of India, - Knowledge, Bibliographic information. QR code for Philosophy of Mind. Jerome A. Shaffer, University of Connecticut Shaffer, Jerome A. "The Philosophy of Mind and Some Ethical Implications," Philosophic Exchange: Vol.
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The above-mentioned imaging studies provide support for this assumption.
Philosophy of Mind : J.A. Shaffer :
But how can primary somatosensory areas be linked to embodied metaphors? In the traditional view those brain areas are known to represent primary modalities.
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Thus, the classic understanding of the primary somatosensory cortex is to reflect touch on the body surface in a more or less mechanical way Kaas, However, recent findings in neuroscience draw the attention to more complex functions of the primary somatosensory cortex, pointing to a role for the philosophy of mind shaffer cortices in perceiving philosophy of mind shaffer than reflecting touch on the body surface.
Moreover, these brain areas seem to include even social perceptions such as empathy Keysers et al.
In his neural reuse theory, Anderson argues that brain areas may be involved in different neural partnerships depending on tasks and circumstances Philosophy of mind shaffer, Embodied metaphors are examples of how our brain uses old strategies in new ways.
Hence, higher-order cognitive processes such as moral thinking may be just recombinations of more simple and basic unconscious brain processes. The brain areas representing the embodied self in particular the sensorimotor brain areas are different from the ones we have mentioned to be engaged in the CMS.
We suggest that, while the CMS represent a conscious self, brain structures engaged in embodied cognitions might be related to an unconscious self.
At least part of this philosophy of mind shaffer self may be based on sensorimotor brain areas.
Philosophy Of Mind | By Jerome A Shaffer
We further assume that both parts of the self are consistently interacting. In fact, we are frequently aware of sensorimotor activation.
However, often this activation is also automatic and unconscious. Again, we argue with Anderson that brain areas can have multiple roles.
Based on the theory of embodied cognitions we assume that many conceptual metaphors e. The suggestion of a conscious self and an embodied self as an unconscious philosophy of mind shaffer that provides a link to our body experiences raises a number of problems.
Who Am I: The Conscious and the Unconscious Self
We will here discuss only one major point, which refers to the way the conscious self may be related to the embodied self.
This conscious self as a structure or organization is related to both the body and the social world. How can we imagine these relationships? When we describe the self as structure and organization we understand philosophy of mind shaffer as a system.
Jerome A. Shaffer (1929-2016)
But the concept of the embodied self states that the self or cognition is not an activity of the mind alone, but is distributed across the entire situation including mind, body, environment e.
How can a system include also its environment? According to the British philosopher and mathematician Georg Spencer-Brown a system is defined by its border, which not only separates the system from the environment, but also is the way a system is defined in the very first beginning: Wilson suggests that the philosophy of mind shaffer self is an open system.