En América del Norte existen cuatro grandes cuencas o pendientes con En América del Sur, los ríos escurren de acuerdo con tres vertientes. Continente Americano Se divide en tres subcontinentes América del Norte América Central América del Sur Se extiende desde Groenlandia hasta el istmo de. Relieve; La costa, las islas; Hidrografía; Climas . De los lagos más importantes de América del Sur se cuenta con el lago de Maracaibo.


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In the area of education, Law No.


Following a landmark ruling14 by the Supreme Court on the constitutionality of affirmative action in higher education, the Quota Law was adopted establishing quotas for students from public schools, Afro-Brazilians and indigenous peoples to increase access to higher education discussed further in chapter IV.

Significant advances have been made relieve de america del sur the area of racial equality legislation. That was translated into a federal law with the adoption of the Statute of Racial Equality,15 which defines the principal areas to be addressed by public bodies in order to overcome racial inequality.


Institutional and policy framework SEPPIR, created inparticipated in the development of the Multi-Annual Plan16 of Brazil, resulting in the Thematic Programme against Racism and Promotion of Racial Equality being included in 25 other programmes, 96 goals and 52 initiatives and 10 budgetary activities in different areas of the Government.

Those institutions work in partnership with other State and relieve de america del sur secretariats to combat racism and discrimination and promote racial equality. A parliamentary adviser works with the National Congress assisting with legislative proposals for the relieve de america del sur of racial equality.

Significant legal and policy advances have been made for Afro-Brazilians in general, particularly during the Lula administration.

Many have low visibility in terms of physical presence and position within State or municipal governments. Moreover, the increased focus at the legislative and policy level on Afro-Brazilians has led to new opposition and challenges to targeted policies addressing racial inequality.

Interactive Map America del sur fisica. relieve américa sur. A

The Working Group is concerned that progress made to date is at risk of regression due to threats, particularly from right-wing groups.

Furthermore, many targeted anti-discrimination measures are designed for minorities.

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Afro-Brazilians now constitute a majority and are continuing to grow, thus racial relieve de america del sur and social inclusion need to be part of universal policies for the society as a whole. Many representatives of civil society expressed concern that current poverty reduction policies, which stimulate growth, are not sufficient for addressing the specific social and economic inequality faced by Afro-Brazilians.

The argument that racism and racial inequality are a consequence of poverty is often used to justify policies which reduce poverty but not necessarily eliminating racism.

There is very often an intersectionality between poverty and racial discrimination. Affirmative action policies Brazil has been a regional leader in affirmative action policies in employment and education for Afro-Brazilians and other marginalized groups.

It has faced serious opposition in Brazil with opponents arguing that it risked exacerbating racial differences and conflicts. Others argued that the racially mixed society of Brazil made targeted affirmative action policies too complex or that such policies constituted racial discrimination against those not eligible.

The Working Group notes that there is also relieve de america del sur risk, that special measures are pretenses to hide racial discrimination that affects a large part of Brazilian society. Quotas based on State law and demographics have been in operation in some relieve de america del sur since enabling greater access to higher education.

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The Integrated Programme of Affirmative Action for Afro-descendants, Brasil Afroatitude, a partnership between 10 universities and the Ministry of Health was established to support Afro-Brazilian quota students.

With support from SEPPIR and the Ministry of Relieve de america del sur it provides financial support to quotista students promoting their relieve de america del sur in diverse academic initiatives.

While it is still too early to fully assess the impact of the quota system for Afro-Brazilians, some research will be discussed below in the section on education. Education is compulsory for children between 6 and 14 years of age and there is currently an enrolment rate of 98 per cent for this age group.

The 2 per cent not enrolled tends to be in marginalized, rural communities including Quilombola communities. Afro-Brazilian children and young people have traditionally had lower access to education than Brazilians of European descent.

Inyoung Brazilians of European descent attended school for eight years, while Afro-Brazilians had only six years of schooling. As Afro-Brazilians are overrepresented among the rural population of Brazil, one of the barriers they face is the distance from school.


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